Bernard Louis Borione (French, 1865 – 1920)

The Cardinal's Solo

Bernard Louis Borione (French, 1865 – 1920)

Bernard Louis Borione (French, 1865 – 1920) “The Cardinal’s Solo” Oil on Canvas. 18.5 x 15 inches.

Bernard Louis Borione was born in Paris in 1865. He was a pupil of his father and the artist Evariste Luminais and he specialized in painting genre subjects and interiors. The domestic antics of members of the higher echelons of the Roman Catholic Church exercised a powerful fascination for a number of popular painters and their patrons in the second half of the nineteenth century and in this Borione was no exception.

As we can see here, these intimate portrayals of the life of the clergy are at once amusing and full of character but also highly skillful in execution. The use of Episcopal purple or crimson enhances the artist’s palette and adds richness to an already sumptuous interior. Borione exhibited his paintings at the Salon des Artistes Francais and his works were as popular then as they are now.

Augustus Edwin Mulready (British, 1844 – 1904)

Augustus Edwin Mulready (23 Feb 1844 – 15 March 1904) was an English genre painter whose work often depicted London street scenes with urchins and flower-sellers.

Mulready came from a family of artists. His grandfather, William Mulready (1786–1863), came to London from Ireland and established himself as a very successful and popular genre painter and book illustrator. His grandmother Elizabeth Mulready, née Varley (1784–1864) was a landscape painter, and the sister of artist John Varley (1778–1842).

Mulready was born in Kensal Green, London,[1] the third of five children of William Mulready Junior (1805–1878, portrait painter and picture restorer), and his wife Sara (1818–1874). He studied art at the South Kensington Schools and as early as 1861, at the age of 17, was already promoting himself as a figure artist. In the same year he entered the Royal Academy, London on the recommendation of John Callcott Horsley who took him under his patronage.

In 1903, reflecting on Horsley’s death, Mulready wrote that Horsley was “for so many years…regarded by myself as more than a father or valued friend I have known – whose many acts, by word of help and of kindness, throughout the days of his life to me have been so marked and fixed in love though now in tears of memory”.

Mulready’s artistic career was much overshadowed by the fame of his grandfather, William Mulready, who was remembered, praised, exhibited and referred to long after his death in 1863. He exhibited, however, at the Royal Academy between 1863 and 1880, at the Hanover Gallery, and the art galleries of Liverpool and Southport, and his paintings were sold at Christie’s. In 1879, ‘A Naturalist’s Window’ shown at Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool was praised by a local critic as representing “a group of persons in various stations of lfe, including an African nurse girl, looking at a stuffed gorilla in a naturalist shop. It is a remarkable production and does great credit to Mr A E Mulready.” His artistic manner – figurative painting with extensive use of colours and attention to detail – was similar to that of his father and grandfather.

From 1870, Mulready was associated with the Cranbrook Colony of artists, living, from 1871, at Waterloo Place, next door to F D Hardy. He returned to London in 1874. Being much younger than other members of the colony, he had little in common with them, and his art reflected on social issues of the day, particularly on the poverty experienced by children their struggle with adult problems – no over-sentimental rural or domestic scenes by him are known. He often depicted London street scenes with urchins and poor flower-sellers, such as ‘A Day’s Reckoning’ and ‘Sounds of Revelry’, shown in 1886 at the Hanover Gallery, and ‘A Flower Girl in a Red Shawl’ and ‘A Newspaper Boy Selling Papers’ displayed at Walker’s Gallery in Liverpool in 1887.

A large-scale painting “Homeless by Night” was exhibited in 1892 at the Atkinson Art Gallery, Southport, and described as a large painful picture, shows a number of gutter children of both sexes, preparing to sleep under one of the Landseer’s lions in Trafalgar Square.”[8] A special feature of his paintings is the inclusion of street posters in the background, the text of which creates additional social and political context for the depicted scene. In this sense, his artworks correspond with problems raised by social activists of the era. Charles Dickens novels also influenced Mulready’s paintings, such as “Hard Times” (1877, private collection). He was even described as ‘a sentimental social realist’.

Mulready also occasionally experimented with landscape painting: In 1880, at Christie’s, three of his small landscapes were sold – The Backward Course: A Sunny Day, A Rainy Afternoon and A Wintry Ave.

Little is known about Mulready’s private life. According to the England and Wales marriage index, Mulready married Maria in 1874 – the couple had two children: Claude Augustus, born in 1875 and Eleanor Julia, born in 1877.

Jakob Emanuel Gaisser (German, 1825 – 1899)

Jakob Emanuel Gaisser, German 1825-1899 “The Music Party” Oil on Panel. 16 x 12 inches.

Jakob Emanuel Gaisser was a German genre painter. He is the father of Max Gaisser.
Jakob Emanuel Gaisser received his first painting lessons from his father, a drawing teacher, went on to study at the Augsburg College with Johann Wilhelm Rudolf Geyer (1807-1875) and then at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts with Clemens von Zimmermann (1788-1869) and Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1794-1872).

After his studies Gaisser worked as a teacher at the Feiertags-Fortbildungsschule in Augsburg. In 1863 he came to Munich to devote himself fully to painting. Jakob Emanuel Gaisser created many genre paintings in the style of 17th and 18th century Dutch painting. Many of his works appeared as postcards and in illustrated magazines. His son, Max Gaisser (1857-1922), also became a genre painter.

Frans Moormans (Dutch, 1831 – 1893)

Frans Moormans (Dutch, 1831 – 1893) “Daughter of the Antiquarian Reading a Letter”. Oil on Panel.

Born in Rotterdam, Frans Moormans studied at the Academy in Anvers and later taught at the Academy in Amsterdam. He exhibited widely in Europe and won a medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889. His genre paintings, examples of which are in museums in Montreal and Rouen, include multi-figural works and single figures in decorative interiors.

Flemish School 17th Century

Flemish School 17th Century “Esther fainting in front of Ahasuerus”. Oil on Canvas. 45 x 46 inches.

Flemish painting flourished from the early 15th century until the 17th century, gradually becoming distinct from the painting of the rest of the Low Countries, especially the modern Netherlands. In the early period, up to about 1520, the painting of the whole area is (especially in the Anglophone world) typically considered as a whole, as Early Netherlandish painting. This was dominated by the Flemish south, but painters from the north were also important.

Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, of which Antwerp became the centre, covers the period up to about 1580 or later, by the end of which the north and south Netherlands had become politically separated. Flemish Baroque painting was especially important in the first half of the 17th century, dominated by Rubens.

In theory the term does not refer to modern Flanders but to the County of Flanders and neighbouring areas of the Low Countries such as the Tournaisis and Duchy of Brabant. However this distinction, well understood in modern Belgium, has always been disregarded by most foreign observers and writers. Flanders delivered the leading painters in Northern Europe and attracted many promising young painters from other countries. These painters were invited to work at foreign courts and had a Europe-wide influence. Since the end of the Napoleonic era, Flemish painters have again been contributing to a reputation that had been set by the Old Masters.

The Franco-Flemish School of musical composition flourished beginning at about the same time.

The so-called Flemish Primitives were the first to popularize the use of oil paint. Their art has its origins in the miniature painting of the late Gothic period. Chief among them were Jan van Eyck, Hans Memling, Hugo van der Goes, Robert Campin and Rogier van der Weyden. The court of the Duchy of Burgundy was an important source of patronage.

From the early 16th century, the Italian Renaissance started to influence the Flemish painters. The result was very different from the typical Italian Renaissance painting. The leading artist was Pieter Brueghel the Elder, who avoided direct Italian influence, unlike the Northern Mannerists.

After the Siege of Antwerp (1584–1585), the Southern Provinces of the Netherlands (“Flanders”) remained under Spanish rule and were separated from the independent Dutch Republic. Although many artists fled the religious wars and moved from the Southern Netherlands to the Dutch Republic (see Dutch Golden Age painting), Flemish Baroque painting flourished, especially in the Antwerp school, during the seventeenth century under Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, and Jacob Jordaens.

Following the deaths of major artists like Rubens in 1640 and the end of the Eighty Years War in 1648, the cultural significance of Flanders declined.

A revival of painting in this region came in the advent of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 and work around that time is often considered Flemish. The painters, who flourished in the aftermath of this patriotic period, are usually referred to as Belgian rather than Flemish. That kingdom comprising Flanders, often influences also more recent artists’s categorization (see List of Belgian painters).

Franz Meertz (Belgian, 1836 – 1896)

Franz Meertz (Belgian, 1836 – 1896) “The Good Monk” Oil on Panel.  26 x 21 inches

Franz Meerts or Frans Meerts was a Belgian painter and aquarellist known for his interior scenes, genre scenes, still lifes and landscapes. He was also active as an author, publisher and copyist.

Franz Meerts was born in Ghent. He studied in his home town at the Academy of Fine Arts of Ghent. Meerts later moved to Brussels, where he attended the private art studio of Jean-François Portaels, a prominent painter of genre scenes, biblical stories, landscapes, portraits and Orientalist subjects and the founder of the Belgian Orientalist school. Portaels trained in his private art studio the next generation of Belgian painters.

Meerts was commissioned by the Belgian government to travel to Spain and Italy to copy the works of the great masters. On the occasion of these trips, he studied the technique of the fresco. He also received a commission from the city council of Louvain to copy works of Dirck Bouts for the Leuven Town Hall. He completed the works in 1899-1890. He spent the last years of his life restoring the murals of St. Peter’s Church in Anderlecht (Brussels).

Meerts was the co-founder of two artist associations in Brussels. The first one was L’Union des Arts that existed from 1876 to 1885 and organised group exhibitions of works of visual artists. Three of such exhibitions were held, all in the personal studio of Meerts. They were not particularly successful. Members of this association included Louis Baretta, Marie De Bièvre, Charles Defreyn, Jules Dujardin, Joseph Flameng, Ernest Hoerickx, Louis Ludwig, Léon Massaux, Joseph Middeleer, René Ovyn, Emile Rimbout, Pieter Stobbaerts, Flori Van Acker and H. Van der Taelen. Franz Meerts subsequently co-founded a new association for young artists, which was given the Dutch name Voorwaarts (‘Forward’) in 1885. Co-founder was Louis Baretta. Its motto was: Hooger is ons doel (‘Higher is our goal’). What is remarkable is both the Dutch-language name of the association and the Dutch-language motto. Its members included Ernest Hoerickx, Léon Massaux, Emile Rimbout, Jan Stobbaerts, Pieter Stobbaerts, Eugène Surinx, Flori van Acker and Camille Wauters. Later others joined including Theodoor Verstraete, Emile Claus, Adrien-Joseph Heymans, Gustave Vanaise, Alfred Verhaeren, Victor Gilsoul, Eugène Laermans, August De Bats, Henri Ottevaere and Emile Van Doren. The first salon of Voorwaarts was held in 1885 in the IJzerenkruistraat in the bustling heart of Brussels. In 1888, Voorwaarts exhibited in the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium in Brussels. The association ceased to exist in 1893.

For more than twenty years, Meerts was the director of the Art Academy of Soignies. He was a co-author of “La Belgique illustrée”, an illustrated history and overview of Belgium. Joseph Middeleer was his pupil.

Franz Meerts died in May 1896 in Brussels.


Ludwig Augustin (Austrian, 1882 – 1960)

Ludwig Augustin (Austrian, 1882 – 1960) “In the Library” Oil on board. 17.5 x 15 inches

Born in Vienna, Ludwig Augustin mainly painted still lifes, with which he became known at auctions at the Dorotheum in the 1920s. His artistic training is not documented. In addition to still life’s, Augustin painted genre scenes and historicized paintings related to the Rococo period and the Orient.

Unknown French Artist 19th Century

Unknown French artist “The Uprising of Cairo” Oil on Canvas.

The Revolt of Cairo was a revolt that occurred on 21–22 October 1798 by the citizens of Cairo against the French occupation of Egypt led by Napoleon Bonaparte.

In 1798, Napoleon led the French army into Egypt, swiftly conquering Alexandria and Cairo. However, in October of that year, discontent against the French led to an uprising by the people of Cairo. While Bonaparte was in Old Cairo, the city’s population began spreading weapons around to one another and fortifying strongpoints, especially at the Al-Azhar Mosque. A French commander, Dominique Dupuy, was killed by the revolting Egyptians, as well as Bonaparte’s Aide-de-campJoseph Sulkowski. Excited by the sheikhs and imams, many of the locals swore by the Prophet to exterminate all and any Frenchman they met, and all Frenchmen they encountered – at home or in the streets – were mercilessly slaughtered. Crowds rallied at the city gates to keep out Bonaparte, who was repulsed and forced to take a detour to get in via the Boulaq gate.

The French army’s situation was critical – the British were threatening French control of Egypt after their victory at the Battle of the NileMurad Bey and his army were still in the field in Upper Egypt, and the generals Menou and Dugua were only just able to maintain control of Lower Egypt. The Ottoman peasants had common cause with those rising against the French in Cairo – the whole region was in revolt. A manifesto of the Great Lord was published widely throughout Egypt, stating:

“The French people are a nation of stubborn infidels and unbridled rascals… They look upon the Koran, the Old Testament and the New Testament as fables… Soon, troops as numerous as they are formidable will advance on us by land, at the same time ships of the line as high as the mountains will cover the surface of the seas… If it pleases God, it is reserved for you to preside over their [i.e. the French forces in Egypt] entire destruction; as dust is scattered by the wind, there will not remain a single vestige of these infidels: for the promise of God is formal, the hope of the wicked man will be deceived, and the wicked men will perish. Glory to the Lord of the worlds!”

The French responded by setting up cannons in the Citadel and firing them at areas containing rebel forces. During the night, French soldiers advanced around Cairo and destroyed any barricades and fortifications they came across. The rebels soon began to be pushed back by the strength of the French forces, gradually losing control of their areas of the city. Bonaparte personally hunted down rebels from street to street and forced them to seek refuge in the Al-Azhar Mosque. Bonaparte said that “He [i.e God] is too late – you’ve begun, now I will finish!”. He then immediately ordered his cannon to open fire on the Mosque. The French broke down the gates and stormed into the building, massacring the inhabitants. At the end of the revolt 5,000 to 6,000 Egyptians were dead or wounded.

Jules Worms (French, 1832 – 1924)

Jules Worms (France, Spanish, 1832 – 1924) “Courting Couple” Oil on board. 20 x 16 inches.

Jules Worms was a French genre painter and illustrator, born in Paris on December 16, 1832. He began to study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1849 under Jean-Baptiste-Adolf Lafrosse, a painter of historical scenes, and consequently developed his own history scenes with comedic overtones.

Worms made his debut at the Salon in 1859 and achieved great success with paintings of Spanish subjects with a subtle humorous comment on contemporary romance. Something of a storyteller, Worms painted animated pictures of gypsies and bullfighters that felt more like stills from comic-operas, than from real life.

In the early 1860s, Worms made the first of many trips to Spain in the early 1860’s along with many young French artists of the time, and was immediately drawn to Spanish culture and customs. Following his initial trip to Spain, Worms returned repeatedly, even living for six weeks in Grenada in 1871 with the Catalan painter, Jose Mari Fortuny whom he had met in Paris. Paintings from the 1870s and 1880s were largely based on Spanish subject matter, revealing the universality of everyday human experiences.

Worms became a member of the Society of French Artists in 1883. He won awards in 1867, 1868, 1869 and was made a member of the Legion of Honor in 1876. Worms died on November 25, 1924. His work is held in the permanent collections of the Dijon Museum, the Museum of Modern Art in Paris and at the Nancy Museum.

Paul Dominique Philippoteaux (French, 1846 – 1923)

Paul Dominique Philippoteaux (French, 1846 – 1923) “Gypsy Camp” Oil on canvas. 14 x 26 inches

Paul Philippoteaux was a French artist. He is best known for a cyclorama of the Battle of Gettysburg. A large section of the Gettysburg Cyclorama depicts Pickett’s Charge up Cemetery Ridge. He also did a diorama of the life of Ulysses S. Grant and a panorama of Niagara Falls. In 1885, he was in New Orleans and married a native, Marie Bechet.

Paul Philippoteaux was born in Paris, the son of the French artist Henri Emmanuel Felix Philippoteaux. His education was at the College Henri-IV, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and in the studio of his father, as well as the studios of Leon Cogniet, and Alexander Cabanal.

He became interested in cycloramas and in collaboration with his father created The Defence of the Fort d’Issy in 1871. Other works included Taking of Plevna (Turko-Russian War), the Passage of the Balkans, The Belgian Revolution of 1830, Attack in the Park, The Battle of Kars, The Battle of Tel-el-Kebir, and the Derniere Sortie.He was commissioned by a group of Chicago investors in 1879 to create the Gettysburg cyclorama. He spent several weeks in April 1882 at the site of the Gettysburg Battlefield to sketch and photograph the scene, and extensively researched the battle and its events over several months. Local photographer William H. Tipton created a series of panoramic photographs shot from a wooden tower erected along present-day Hancock Avenue. The photos, pasted together, formed the basis of the composition. Philippoteaux also interviewed several survivors of the battle, including Union generals Winfield S. Hancock, Abner Doubleday, Oliver O. Howard, and Alexander S. Webb, and based his work partly on their recollections.

Philippoteaux enlisted a team of five assistants, including his father until his death, to create the final work. It took over a year and a half to complete. The finished painting was nearly 100 yards long and weighed six tons. When completed for display, the full work included not just the painting, but numerous artifacts and sculptures, including stone walls, trees, and fences. The effect of the painting has been likened to the nineteenth century equivalent of an IMAX theater.

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